The Saab JAS 39 Gripen (IPA: [ˈɡrǐːpɛn]; English: griffin) is a light single-engine multirole fighter aircraft manufactured by the Swedish aerospace company Saab AB. The Gripen has a delta wing and canard configuration with relaxed stability design and fly-by-wire flight controls. Various versions have been built and these are grouped as A-, C- and E-series. Gripen A- and C-series are powered by the GE F404G engine (previously designated Volvo RM12) and the E-series is powered by the GE F414G engine, and has a top speed of Mach 2. Later aircraft are modified for NATO interoperability standards and to undertake air to air refuelling. In 1979, the Swedish government began development studies for an aircraft capable of fighter, attack, and reconnaissance missions to replace the Saab 35 Draken and 37 Viggen in the Swedish Air Force. A new design from Saab was selected and developed as the JAS 39, first flying in 1988, delivery of first serial production airplane occurred in 1993, and entered service with the Swedish Air Force in 1996. Upgraded variants, featuring more advanced avionics and adaptations for longer mission times, began entering service in 2003. To market the aircraft internationally, Saab formed partnerships and collaborative efforts with overseas aerospace companies, including, in 2001, BAE Systems. On the export market, early models of the Gripen achieved moderate success in sales to nations in Central Europe, South Africa, and Southeast Asia; bribery was suspected in some of these procurements, but authorities closed the investigation in 2009.An updated and redeveloped version, designated Gripen JAS 39E/F but previously referred to as Gripen NG or Super JAS, began deliveries to the Swedish and Brazilian Air Forces as of 2019. The changes from the C-series to E-series include the adoption of a new powerplant, the General Electric F414G, an active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar, and significantly increased internal fuel capacity. As of 2020, more than 271 Gripens of all models, A–F, have been built.
The Savoia-Marchetti SM.92 was an Italian heavy fighter/bomber of World War II based on the Savoia-Marchetti SM.88. The SM.92 did away with the mid-wing crew nacelle. The crew of two sat in the left fuselage only. Two DB 605 engines were fitted.