Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio or cardio-respiratory exercise) is physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process. "Aerobic" is defined as "relating to, involving, or requiring free oxygen", and refers to the use of oxygen to adequately meet energy demands during exercise via aerobic metabolism. Aerobic exercise is performed by repeating sequences of light-to-moderate intensity activities for extended periods of time. Aerobic exercise may be better referred to as "solely aerobic", as it is designed to be low-intensity enough that all carbohydrates are aerobically turned into energy via mitochondrial ATP production. Mitochondria are organelles that rely on oxygen for the metabolism of carbs, proteins, and fats.
Examples of cardiovascular or aerobic exercise are medium–to–long distance running or jogging, swimming, cycling, stair climbing and walking.
Anaerobic exercise is a type of exercise that breaks down glucose in the body without using oxygen; anaerobic means “without oxygen”. In practical terms, this means that anaerobic exercise is more intense, but shorter in duration than aerobic exercise.
Fox and Haskell formula
The biochemistry of anaerobic exercise involves a process called glycolysis, in which glucose is converted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the primary source of energy for cellular reactions.
Lactic acid is produced at an increased rate during anaerobic exercise, causing it to build up quickly.
Anaerobic exercise may be used by personal trainers to help their clients build endurance, muscle strength, and power.